Laser Beam Welding Machine Fiber Laser Welding Machine Handheld

Views:119     Author:Site Editor     Publish Time: 18-05-2021      Origin:Site

How does a laser work

Laser technology basics

All lasers consist of three components:


An external pump source

The active laser medium

The resonator

The pump source guides external energy to the laser.


The active laser medium is located on the inside of the laser. Depending on the design, the laser medium can consist of a gas mixture (CO2 laser), of a crystal body (ND:YAG laser), or glass fibers (Fiber laser). When energy is fed to the laser medium through the pump, it emits energy in the form of radiation.


The active laser medium is located between two mirrors, the "resonator". One of these mirrors is a one-way mirror. The radiation of the active laser medium is amplified in the resonator. At the same time, only certain radiation can leave the resonator through the one-way mirror. This bundled radiation is laser radiation.


Laser beam welding is a technique in manufacturing whereby two or more pieces of material (usually metal) are joined by together through use of a laser beam.

It is a non-contact process that requires access to the weld zone from one side of the parts being welded.

The weld is formed as the intense laser light rapidly heats the material – typically calculated in milliseconds.

The laser beam is a coherent (single-phase) light of a single wavelength (monochromatic). The laser beam has low beam divergence and high energy content and thus will create heat when it strikes a surface

The primary types of lasers used in welding and cutting are:

·        Gas lasers: use a mixture of gases such as helium and nitrogen. There are also CO2 or carbon dioxide lasers. These lasers use a low-current, high-voltage power source to excite the gas mixture using a lasing medium. Operate in a pulsed or continuous mode.
Carbon dioxide lasers use a mixture of high purity carbon dioxide with helium and nitrogen as the lasing medium. CO2 lasers are also used in dual-beam laser welding where the beam is split into two equal power beams.

·        Solid state lasers: (Nd:YAG type and ruby lasers) Operate at 1micrometer wavelengths. They can be pulsed or operate continuously. Pulsed operation produced joints similar to spot welds but with complete penetration. The pulse energy is 1 to 100 Joules. Pulse time is 1 to 10 milliseconds.

·        Diode lasers

Lasers are used for materials that are difficult to weld using other methods, for hard to access areas and for extremely small components. Intert gas shielding is needed for more reactive materials.

laser welding


Properties of a laser beam: monochromatic and high coherence

Laser radiation has three fundamental properties:

  1. Monochromatic. This means that the radiation      consists of only one wavelength.

  2. High coherence and thereby phase coincidence.

  3. The waves of the laser are approximately      parallel due to the coherence.

Due to these properties, the laser light is used in many areas of modern material processing. The intensity is preserved for a long time due to the coherence and can be bundled even further through lenses. The laser beam impinges on the material surface, is absorbed and thus heats the material. Due to this generation of heat, the material can be removed or completely evaporated. It is thus possible to engrave, to mark or to cut a plurality of materials.


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